SAI EXPORT INDIA are manufactured ATTARS By the traditionally Degs & Bhapka system, its Called hydro distillation method. The still is heated form below by lighting a fire with the help of wood or dung. The temperature and speed of the distillation plant controlled by regulating the fire. The distillation is managed by highly experience workers whos called Dighaa. He knows when the correct quantity of vapours have condensed inside the receiver by feeling the round part of the receiver under water. The water in the tank is change continuously to prevent the temperature rising too high. and managing the still is highly skilled job, as the operator must keep the boiling in the still at a level that matches the condensation in the receiver, in order to keep the pressure under control. When the desire quantity of vapours have condensed, the Dighaa rubs a wet cloth around the body of the still for a temporary pause in distillation and the filled receiver is replaced by another receiver. If necessary, the second may be replaced by a third receiver. The receiver is then allowed to cool and may remain idle for one or two days depending on the pressure of work. The mixture of oil and water is then separated either directly form the receiver through a hole at the bottom or pouring the whole mixture in an open trough, After the oil and water have separated into two layers, the water is removed from an opening in the bottom, and the same is cohobated. The base material remains in the receiver. After desired concentration of the attar has been reached, then same is poured into leather bottles for sedimentation and removal of moisture. Sometimes liquid paraffin is used for the manufacture of cheaper attars. The mouth of the receiver is sealed by wrapping coarse cloth around the bamboo pipe and pushing it inside the condenser. The receiver may contain up to 5-10 kilos of base materials and is kept in a small water tank.
Base Material : Sandal wood oil, Di-octyl Phthalate (DOP) & Liquid paraffin.
Floral Material : Flowers of Gulab, Kewra, Bela, Mehndi, Kadam, Chameli, Marigold, Saffron & Maulshri.
Herb & Spices : A number of hersbs and spices are used in this industry which includes Oakmoss, Sugandh mantri, Laurel berry, Juniper berry, Cypriol, Indian valerian, Jatamansi, Hedychium spicatum, Daru Haldi, Sugandha Bala, Sugandha Kokila, Kulanjan, Javitri/ Jaiphal, Cardamom, Clove, Saffron, Ambergris & Musk.
TYPES OF ATTARS
The attars may be broadly categorized into following types on the basis of raw
Floral Attars Attars manufactured from single species of flower are coming under this category. These are :-
(i)Gulab ex Rosa damascena or Rosa Edword,
(ii)Kewra ex Pandanus odoratissimus,
(iii)Motia ex Jasminum sambac,
(iv)Gulhina ex lawsonia inermis,
(v)Chameli ex Jasminum grandiflorum,
(vi)Kadam ex Anthoephalus cadamba,
Herbal and Spicy Attar
Attar manufactured from combination of floral, herbal & spicy materials are coming under this category. Hina and its various forms viz., Shamama, Shamam tul Amber, Musk Amber and Musk Hina.
The some attars which are neither floral nor herbal and are coming under this category. Attar Mitti falls under this category and is produced by distillation of baked earth over base material.
The Indian attars in the past has been utilized by elite class of the society particularly kinds & queens on their body. With the span of time kingdoms got abolished and hence the kings & queens. But, attars industry got a new dimension form the field of fragrance to flavour and now a days it is used in the following areas;
1. Pan Masala and Gutka is the largest consumer of Indian attars. The reason for using it is its extraordinary tenacity along with characteristic to withstand with tobacco note. The attars used are rose, Kewra, Mehndi, Hina, Shamama, Mitti, Marigold etc.
2.Tobacco is relatively smaller segment for attar consumption as compared to above industry. The attars used are mainly kewra & Rose. Alongwith Pan masala & Gutkha it contributes to more the 75% of attar consumption.
3.Betlenet is relatively smaller segment for attar consumption as compared to above two industry. The attars used are mainly Kewra & Rose.
4.It is used by people as a personal perfume, particularly by Muslims due to absence of alcohol.
5.Attars does have the application in pharmaceutical industry too.
6.Attars of Rose & Kewra are used in traditional Indian sweets , for imparting flavour.
The quality of Attars can be ensured by
i-Controlling the qualities of raw material i.e. flowers & base materials like sandalwood oil etc.
ii-Standardization of process parameters.
The BIS specification is available for the analysis of Sandalwood oil. Most of the species which are used in the manufacturing of Indian traditional fragrances for example Sugandh Mantri, Sugandh Bala, Kapoor Kachri, Jatamansi, Nagarmotha, etc. have no specification for their quality assessment.
The quality of attars depends upon.
A. The quality of flower
A. The time duration between the plucking of flower and charging into the stills,
C. The process parameters of distillation.